Monday, July 11, 2016

preliminary notes on imperfect, conditional, and future

The imperfect has 3 irregulars.  For the regular ones the endings are

aba      ábamos
abas    abais
aba      aban

ía      íamos
ías    íais
ía      ían

The stem is formed by dropping the ar/er/ir from the infinitive.

There are no stem changes.

Now the irregulars.  Ver, ir, ser.

Ver is not very irregular.  It's only irregularity is that the stem is ve- instead of just v-.

veía      veíamos
veías     veíais
veía      veían

Ir is not very irregular either. Just insert a B in the endings and that's the whole word.

iba      íbamos
ibas    ibais
iba      iban

And then ser.  Ser is weird.

era      éramos
eras    erais
era      eran

It's not THAT different from the others, except that it starts with er- instead of ab- or i-.

Now the conditional.  The conditional endings are the same as the endings for the -er/-ir verbs in the imperfect.

ía      íamos
ías    íais
ía      ían

Those are the endings for ALL the verbs in the conditional.

For regular verbs, the stem is the entire infinitive, for example hablar-

hablaría      hablaríamos
hablarías    hablaríais
hablaría      hablarían

For irregular verbs, like I said the endings are the same, but the stem is altered slightly.  Here's a list of some of the infinitives and their irregular stems.

hacer har-
tener tendr-

For example

saber sabr-
sabría      sabríamos
sabrías     sabríais
sabría      sabrían

And now the future indicative.  The stem is the same as the conditional.  It's the entire infinitive for the regular ones and it's the same altered form of the infinitive for the irregulars.  Add these endings:

é      emos
ás     éis
á      án

hablaré      hablaremos
hablarás    hablaréis
hablará      hablarán

Sunday, July 10, 2016

preliminary notes on present subjunctive

present subjunctive is based on the yo form of the present indicative.

There are six irregulars.  They're irregular because they are the six verbs where the yo form of the present indicative doesn't end in an -o.  for regulars you get the stem for the present subjunctive by dropping the o from the yo form of the present indicative, but for these six irregulars you have to memorize them separately.

Here they are, infinitives, yo form of the present indicative, and the stem for the present subjunctive

haber  he      hay-
saber  sé       sep-
ir        voy     vay-
ser      soy     se-
dar     doy     d-
estar   estoy  est-

Then add the endings, which are the same as for the regular verbs, except estar is weird.

ar verbs
-e     -emos
-es   -éis
-e     -en

er/ir verbs
-a     -amos
-as   -áis
-a     -an

haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan
sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan
vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean
dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den

and estar
esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén

Estar is weird because it's stressed on the last syllable in the boot, which is unusual, like I think it's the only verb that does that?  It's probably because it comes from latin stare, and then you drop the final -e and get "star", but then spanish has a rule about S's so you have to put an e before it for pronunciation, so it's estar.  Anyway, the endings for estar in the present subjunctive are regular except for the stress pattern.

dar is actually regular in the forms of the present subjunctive.  The only reason it's considered irregular is that the yo form of the present indicative doesn't end in an o, so it technically doesn't fit the rule of dropping the o to get the stem for the present subjunctive.  You have to drop the -oy.

ser is almost regular, the only problems being that you have to drop the -oy from the yo form of the present indicative instead of just the -o, like dar, and also that the present subjunctive has an extra "e" hanging out in its stem, whereas if it were regular the stem would just be s- like how the stem for dar is d-.

ver and haber are weird, idk where their present subjunctive forms come from.

the present subjunctive of saber is based on an old form of the yo form of the present indicative:  sepo.  There's like one other verb that still has an irregular yo form of the present indicative like that and that is caber (quepo).  since the yo form of the present indicative of caber IS currently quepo, the present subjunctive of caber is not irregular, it's just based directly on quepo.  Saber is irregular because it's based on sepo, but the modern yo form of the present indicative of saber is sé.

and like i said for all the regular ones you drop the o from the yo form of the present indicative and add the endings listed above, but that's not all!  There are stem-changes to think about.

member how some stem changes appear in the boot and some appear only in the short-boot?  If a verb is stem-changing in the present indicative but only in the short-boot, then the stem-change does NOT appear in the present subjunctive.  So you just add the endings and you're done.

If the stem-change appears in the yo form of the present indicative, then it will appear in the BOOT of the present subjunctive.

And then you have to check to see if it's an ar, er, or ir verb.  If it's an ar or er verb, you're done. If it's an ir verb, then a *reduced stem-change* appears in the NOT-BOOT, ie the nosotrxs and vosotrxs forms.  The reduced stem-change is e -> i and o -> u.  (That means if the verb's stem-change was e -> i to begin with then all six forms end up with the same e -> i stem-change.  There's no such thing as an o -> u stem change so that's not an issue.  If it was i -> ie, then the reduced stem-change looks exactly like a lack of a stem-change.  That's rare but does occur.  And there is such a thing as u -> ue stem-change, but there's only one verb that does that and it's not an -ir verb, so it's not an issue here either.)

So I think that's all.

preliminary notes on infinitives and verb conjugation

infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir.

verbs are conjugated in six different "people".
1st singular, 1st plural
2nd singular, 2nd plural
3rd singular, 3rd plural

the nosotrxs form of a verb always ends in -mos.  always.  in every tense, mood, etc, whatever.
the uds/ellxs form always always always ends in an n.  -an, -en, or -on.
the vosotrxs form always ends in -is.  -ais, -eis, or -is.
the ud/ellx form always ends in a vowel, either a or e.
the tú form almost always ends in an s.  as or es.  the exception is the preterist, which ends in aste or iste.
the yo form is usually the same as the ud/ella/él form.  two exceptions, the preterite and the present indicative.  in the preterite, it ends in e or i.  in the present indicative, it usually ends in -o, with only six exceptions.

different forms or conjugations or whatever are
present indicative
present subjunctive
past indicative preterite
past indicative imperfect
past subjunctive
future indicative
future subjunctive (archaic, but awesome so I use it anyway)
past participle
present participle

preliminary notes on spanish spelling

I'm not going to go into all the details about patterns in spanish spelling, only the parts you need to know in order to conjugate verbs and decline other words.

to make the /k/ sound, you need either "c" or "qu" (or sometimes "k", but that's only in some borrowed words and not relevant to this).  If it's before an e or an i, you  need "qu", otherwise "c".  This comes up in verb conjugation in for example the word "buscar".  In the preterite, it's "busqué".  It's pronounced like "buskar" and "buské", a /k/ sound in both cases, but you can't spell "buské" with a "c" because c before e or i goes /s/, so that one has to be a "qu", busqué; and you can't have "qu" anywhere *except* before an e or an i because spanish says so (totally arbitrarily, french for example doesn't follow the rule), so it has to be a "c", buscar.

to make the /g/ sound before an e or an i, you have to insert a "u", because in "ge" or "gi" the "g" is pronounced like a j.  So instead you write "gue" or "gui" and the u is silent.  This comes up in "pagar".  The preterite is "pagué".  <- silent "u".

If a g is before an e or an i, and then the conjugation makes the g be followed by something else (o, a), then you have to change the g to a j to maintain the pronunciation.  eg proteger.  the yo form of the present indicative is protejo.

Spanish says a z can't come before an e or an i (except in some borrowed words) so sometimes a z has to change to a c.  For example, the plural of luz is luces.

Sidenote, if you want to write /gwe/ or /gwi/, you can by putting umlauts on the u, güe, güi.  Words with the ü are very rare.

I think that's all.

preliminary notes on present indicative conjugation

regular ar endings
o     amos
as    áis
a     an

regular er endings
o     emos
es    éis
e     en

regular ir endings
o     imos
es    ís
e     en

The accent marks on the vosotrxs forms are short-hand for the fact that the word would be stressed on that syllable.  If it's a single-syllable word, it may not actually have the accent mark.  The only way it would then is if it has to be distinguished from a homonym that doesn't get sentence-level stress.

There's also stem changes.  Possible stem changes are
e -> i
e -> ie
i -> ie (very rare)
o -> ue (if the ue is at the beginning of the word, you have to put an h before it)
u -> ue (very rare)

ie would also have to have an h before it at the beginning of the word, but I think all such words already have an h at the beginning of them in the infinitive.

stem changes appear in the boot or short-boot.  Boot is yo, tú, ella, ellas.  Short-boot is all those except yo.  If the stem-change only appears in the short-boot, it's because the yo form is irregular.

Then there's some other weird irregular forms that you have to memorize.  meh, not gonna go into all that.

There are six verbs where the yo form doesn't end in an o.  Only six.

preliminary notes on diphthongs and antidiphthongs

a diphthong is made of a vowel and a semi-vowel.  The semi-vowels in spanish are i and u.  When they are being semi-vowels they're like y and w.  When an i or a u comes next to an a, e, or o, it's by default a semi-vowel.


ai is pronounced like ay
ei is pronounced like ey
oi is pronounced like oy

ia is pronounced like ya
ie is pronounced like ye
io is pronounced like yo

au is pronounced like aw (like the english word "ow" actually)
eu is pronounced like ew (not a typical english vowel sound, nothing to compare to)
ou is pronounced like ow (as in "owe")

ua is pronounced like wa
ue is pronounced like we
uo is pronounced like wo

When i and u are together, the first one is the semi-vowel and the second one is the vowel.

iu is pronounced like yu
ui is pronouncd like wi

note the word "muy".  It's spelled with a y, not an i, which seems to indicate that the u should be the vowel and the y should be the semi-vowel, but some people pronounce is like "mwi", rhyming with the word "fui" which is pronounce like "fwi".

If you have one of these letter combinations but they DON'T form a diphthong, that's called an antidiphthong, and if the vowel that would have been the semi-vowel is instead the stressed vowel of the word, then it needs an accent mark.  (It's possible but rare to have an antidiphthong where the would-be semi-vowel is not the stressed vowel of the word.  In that case it does not get an accent mark, but the word might end up with an accent mark on its stressed vowel for some other reason.)

países is paheeses, not payses
leíste not leyste
oíste not oyste

día has an accent mark because it's deeah, not "dya".
vacíe is not "vacye"
confío is not "confyo"

raúl not rawl
reúne not rewne
can't find examples of oú


preliminary notes on accent marks

Accent marks in spanish

A word can have at most one accent mark.  either zero or one.  that's it.

the ~ on the ñ is not an accent mark.  that's part of the letter.  so a word can have any number of ~'s and one accent mark or zero accent marks.

the accent marks always go up to the right. áéíóúÁÉÍÓÚ

If a word has an accent mark, the accent mark is always on the stressed vowel of the word.  A word has one stressed syllable and a syllable has one vowel that is its nucleus.  If the word has an accent mark, it goes over that vowel.

How to determine if a word has an accent mark.
it has to meet at least one of the following

1.  it's a one-syllable word that gets sentence-level stress that has at least one homonym that doesn't get sentence-level stress.  so like "sé" gets an accent mark and "se" doesn't because sé is a verb and se is a pronoun.  The parts of speech that get sentence-level stress are nouns, verbs, adjective, adverbs, i think that's all, need to get confirmation on this.

2.  it's a "question word" that needs to be distinguished from its corresponding relative pronoun or whatever.  so like if "qué" means "what", it gets an accent mark, but if it means "that", it doesn't.  when "cómo" means "how", it gets an accent mark, but when it means "as", it doesn't.  bizarro exception is the phrase "lo que" which is treated as one word separate from "qué" so it never gets an accent mark.

3.  it contains an antidiptongo.  uh, I will just make a separate entry explaining diphthongs and antidiphthongs.

4.  it breaks the assumed stress pattern.  Words that end in a vowel, n, or s are assumed to be stressed on the second-to-last syllable, so if they are stressed on any other syllable, there needs to be an accent mark over the stressed vowel.  Words that end in any other letter are assumed to be stressed on the last syllable, so if they are stressed on any other syllable, there needs to be an accent mark on the stressed vowel.

5.  spanish is "regulated" by a stupid "academy" and they "decided" that this isn't true anymore, but you will probably still see it sometimes:  the words este(os)/a(s), ese(os)/a(s), aquel(los)/la(s) can be pronouns or adjectives and the "old" way is to give them an accent mark when they are being pronouns.

So to figure out if a word needs an accent mark.
1.  Is it a one-syllable word?  If so then check if it's one of those that gets an accent mark to distinguish it from a "tiny" homonym.
2.  Is it a question word that needs to be distinguished from a homonymy relative pronoun?  Then it gets an accent mark probably i think i need to look into this.
3.  Is it one of those three demonstrative pronouns?  Then you can put an accent mark on it if you want but it's not required anymore.
4.  If the word has more than one syllable apply this rule.  If it's not a llana word that ends in a vowel n or s, or an aguda word that ends in any other letter, then it gets an accent mark.
5.  If it contains an antidiptongo where the would-be deslisada is the stressed vowel of the word, then it gets an accent mark.

They don't have to be done in order.